Nắm vững công thức, cách dùng của thì quá khứ đơn (Simple Past Tense)mới vận dụng làm bài tập và giao tiếp hiệu quả. Ngoại Ngữ Tinh Tú (Ngoaingutinhtu.com) xin gửi tới bạn đọc trọn bộ công thức của thì hiện tại đơn và kèm theo ví dụ vận dụng dễ hiểu.

Công thức thì quá khứ đơn
Thì quá khứ đơn

1. Định nghĩa thì quá khứ đơn (Simple Past Tense)

Thì quá khứ đơn diễn tả sự việc, hiện tượng xảy ra trong quá khứ và kết thúc ở quá khứ, không kéo dài đến hiện tại và tương lai.

2. Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ đơn

Trong câu có chứa những từ sau là dấu hiệu của thì quá khứ đơn:

  • Yesterday: Hôm qua Last night: Tối qua
  • Last week: Tuần trước
  • Last month: Tháng trước
  • Last year: Năm ngoái
  • Ago: cách đây. (two hours ago: cách đây 2 giờ, two weeks ago: cách đây 2 tuần…)
  • At, on, in… (at 6 o’clock, on Monday, in June,…)
  • When + mệnh đề chia thì quá khứ đơn: khi (when I was a kid,…)

3. Công thức thì quá khứ đơn

3.1. Công thức thì quá khứ đơn với động từ To Be

3.1.1. Thể khẳng định

Cấu trúc:

S + was/ were +…

Trong đó:

  • S (subject): Chủ ngữ
  • S = I/ He/ She/ It/ Danh từ số ít + was
  • S = We/ You/ They/ Danh từ số nhiều + were

Ví dụ:

  • The children were in the garden.
  • It was cloudy yesterday.

3.1.2. Thể phủ định

Cấu trúc:

S + was/ were + not …

Lưu ý:

  • was not = wasn’t
  • were not = weren’t

Ví dụ: They were not in London from Monday to Thursday of last week.

3.1.3. Thể nghi vấn

Cấu trúc:

  • Was/ Were (+not) + S +…?

Trả lời:

Yes, S + was/ were.

No, S + wasn’t/ weren’t.

  • WH-word + was/ were + S (+ not) +…?

Ví dụ:

Were they happy last holiday?

What was the weather like yesterday?

3.2. Công thức thì quá khứ đơn với động từ thường

3.2.1. Thể khẳng định

Cấu trúc: S + V-ed/ V-2 +…

Trong đó:

  • S (Subject): Chủ ngữ
  • V-ed/ V-2: Động từ chia thì quá khứ đơn (theo quy tắc hoặc bất quy tắc).

Ví dụ: Joni went to the zoo five days ago.

Tyler visited his grandmother last month.

3.2.2. Thể phủ định

Cấu trúc: S + did not + V(nguyên mẫu)

Lưu ý: did not = didn’t

Ví dụ: She didn’t go to the church five days ago.

3.2.3. Thể nghi vấn

  • Câu hỏi Yes/ No question

Cấu trúc: Did + S + V(nguyên thể)?

Trả lời: Yes, S + did./ No, S + didn’t.

  • Câu hỏi WH- question

Cấu trúc: WH-word + did + S (+ not) + V(nguyên mẫu)?

Trả lời: S + V-ed +…

Ví dụ:

Did you go to work yesterday?

Where did she go?

4. Cách dùng thì quá khứ đơn

Thì quá khứ đơn
Cách dùng thì quá khứ đơn

4.1. Diễn tả một loạt hành động liên tiếp nhau xảy ra trong quá khứ.

Ví dụ:

  • I was very tired, so I left the party early.
  • It was warm, so I took off my coat.
  • The window was open and a bird flew into the room.

4.2. Diễn tả một hành động đã kết thúc trong quá khứ và có thời điểm xác định

Ví dụ:

  • The Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903.
  • I think I heard a strange sound outside the door one minute ago.
  • They had dinner at 9 o´clock.

4.3. Diễn tả một hành động diễn ra thường xuyên lặp đi lặp lại trong quá khứ và bây giờ không diễn ra nữa

  • When I was in middle school, I used to play soccer.
  • She usually came to the library, but now she reads e-books.
  • He worked out quite often before he fell sick.

4.4. Diễn tả một hành động đã xảy ra trong 1 thời gian dài trong quá khứ và đã kết thúc

  • Susie was a teacher for 10 years.
  • Tony worked for that company for 2 years.
  • I learned at high school from 2014 to 2017.

4.5. Diễn tả hành động chen ngang vào hành động khác diễn ra trong quá khứ

  • She was eating, the phone rang.
  • The policeman caught the thief while he was escaping.
  • The children were playing football when their mother came back home.

5. Cách chia động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn

  • Thêm đuôi “-ed” vào sau động từ hợp quy tắc như played, worked, watched,…
  • Động từ tận cùng là “e” thì ta chỉ cần thêm “d” như tired, smiled, agreed,…
  • Động từ có MỘT âm tiết, tận cùng là MỘT phụ âm và trước phụ âm là MỘT nguyên âm thì ta nhân đôi phụ âm cuối rồi thêm “-ed”: stop – stopped, shop – shopped, tap – tapped,…
  • Có một số từ không áp dụng quy tắc đó: commit – committed, travel – travelled,  prefer – preferred,…
  • Đối với động từ tận cùng là “y”:

Trước “y” là MỘT nguyên âm (a,e,i,o,u) thì ta cộng thêm “ed”: play – played, stay – stayed,…

Trước “y” là phụ âm (còn lại ) thì ta đổi “y” thành “i + ed”: study – studied, cry – cried,…

6. Một số bài tập và đáp án về thì quá khứ đơn

6.1. Bài tập 1:

Điền và chia thì các từ cho sẵn vào câu thích hợp:

buy        catch       cost        fall         hurt        throw      sell        spend        teach       ·write

  1. ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father _____ me.’
  2. Mozart _______ more than 600 pieces of music.
  3. We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we _______ it.
  4. Dave _______ down the stairs this morning and _______ his leg.
  5. Joe _______ the ball to Sue, who _______ it.
  6. Annie _______ a lot of money yesterday. She _______ a dress which _______ $100.

6.2. Bài tập 2:

Hoàn thành các câu và chia từ đúng dạng:

  1. The bed was very comfortable. I ________ (sleep) well.
  2. The window was open and a bird ________ (fly) into the room.
  3. We were very tired, so we ________ (leave) the party early.
  4. lt was hard carrying the bags. They ________ (be) very heavy.
  5. lt was warm, so I ________ (take) off my coat.
  6. The film wasn’t very good. I ________ (enjoy) it much.
  7. I knew Sarah was busy, so I ________ (disturb) her.
  8. The villa wasn’t very expensive. lt ________ (cost) much to stay there.
  9. He was in a hurry, so he ________ (have) time to phone you.

6.3. Đáp án

Bài tập 1:

  • 1. taught
  • 2. wrote
  • 3. sold
  • 4. fell – hurt
  • 5. threw – caught
  • 6. spent – bought – cost

Bài tập 2:

  • 1. slept
  • 2.flew
  • 3. left
  • 4. were
  • 5. took
  • 6. didn’t enjoy
  • 7. didn’t disturb
  • 8. didn’t cost
  • 9. didn’t have

Trên đây là toàn bộ công thức và một số bài tập vận dụng về thì quá khứ đơnNgoại Ngữ Tinh Tú (Ngoaingutinhtu.com) chia sẻ tới các bạn. Hy vọng sẽ bổ sung kiến thức về ngữ pháp tiếng anh trên con đường chinh phục tri thức.

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Diu1ec5n tu1ea3 hu00e0nh u0111u1ed9ng chen ngang vu00e0o hu00e0nh u0111u1ed9ng khu00e1c diu1ec5n ra trong quu00e1 khu1ee9nnShe was eating, the phone rang.nThe policeman caught the thief while he was escaping.nThe children were playing football when their mother came back home.nn5. 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Mu1ed9t su1ed1 bu00e0i tu1eadp vu00e0 u0111u00e1p u00e1n vu1ec1 thu00ec quu00e1 khu1ee9 u0111u01a1nn6.1. Bu00e0i tu1eadp 1:nu0110iu1ec1n vu00e0 chia thu00ec cu00e1c tu1eeb cho su1eb5n vu00e0o cu00e2u thu00edch hu1ee3p:nbuyu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 catch u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 costu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 fall u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 hurtu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 throwu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 sellu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 spendu00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 teach u00a0 u00a0 u00a0 u00b7writennu2018How did you learn to drive?u2019 u2018My father _____ me.u2019nMozart _______ more than 600 pieces of music.nWe couldnu2019t afford to keep our car, so we _______ it.nDave _______ down the stairs this morning and _______ his leg.nJoe _______ the ball to Sue, who _______ it.nAnnie _______ a lot of money yesterday. She _______ a dress which _______ $100.nn6.2. Bu00e0i tu1eadp 2:nHou00e0n thu00e0nh cu00e1c cu00e2u vu00e0 chia tu1eeb u0111u00fang du1ea1ng:nnThe bed was very comfortable. I ________ (sleep) well.nThe window was open and a bird ________ (fly) into the room.nWe were very tired, so we ________ (leave) the party early.nlt was hard carrying the bags. They ________ (be) very heavy.nlt was warm, so I ________ (take) off my coat.nThe film wasnu2019t very good. I ________ (enjoy) it much.nI knew Sarah was busy, so I ________ (disturb) her.nThe villa wasnu2019t very expensive. lt ________ (cost) much to stay there.nHe was in a hurry, so he ________ (have) time to phone you.nn6.3. u0110u00e1p u00e1nnBu00e0i tu1eadp 1:nn1. taughtn2. wroten3. soldn4. fell u2013 hurtn5. threw u2013 caughtn6. spent u2013 bought u2013 costnnBu00e0i tu1eadp 2:nn1. sleptn2.flewn3. leftn4. weren5. tookn6. didnu2019t enjoyn7. didnu2019t disturbn8. didnu2019t costn9. didnu2019t havennTru00ean u0111u00e2y lu00e0 tou00e0n bu1ed9 cu00f4ng thu1ee9c vu00e0 mu1ed9t su1ed1 bu00e0i tu1eadp vu1eadn du1ee5ng vu1ec1 thu00ec quu00e1 khu1ee9 u0111u01a1n mu00e0 Ngoại Ngữ Tinh Tú (Ngoaingutinhtu.com) chia su1ebb tu1edbi cu00e1c bu1ea1n. Hy vu1ecdng su1ebd bu1ed5 sung kiu1ebfn thu1ee9c vu1ec1 ngu1eef phu00e1p tiu1ebfng anh tru00ean con u0111u01b0u1eddng chinh phu1ee5c tri thu1ee9c.nTham khu1ea3o thu00eam:nn14+ Phu01b0u01a1ng phu00e1p hu1ecdc ngu1eef phu00e1p tiu1ebfng Anh hiu1ec7u quu1ea3nLu1ed9 tru00ecnh hu1ecdc ngu1eef phu00e1p tiu1ebfng Anh cho ngu01b0u1eddi mu1edbi bu1eaft u0111u1ea7unLu1ed9 tru00ecnh hu1ecdc tiu1ebfng Anh cho ngu01b0u1eddi mu1ea5t gu1ed1c”,”author”:{“@type”:”Person”,”name”:”Nguyu00ean Phu01b0u1ee3ng”},”datePublished”:”2021-07-03T23:41:34+07:00″,”dateModified”:”2021-08-26T21:50:30+07:00″,”reviewRating”:{“@type”:”Rating”,”ratingValue”:”5″,”bestRating”:5,”worstRating”:1},”publisher”:{“@type”:”Organization”,”name”:”Ngoại Ngữ Tinh Tú”,”logo”:{“@type”:”ImageObject”,”url”:”https://e4life.vn/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/cropped-4Life-English-Center-1.png”,”width”:512,”height”:512}}},”aggregateRating”:{“@type”:”AggregateRating”,”ratingValue”:4.7,”ratingCount”:6,”bestRating”:5,”worstRating”:1}}

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