Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (Past Perfect Continuous Tense) là một trong những thì khá khó và áp dụng nhiều trong đề thi. Cùng Ngoại Ngữ Tinh Tú (Ngoaingutinhtu.com) tìm hiểu công thức, cách dùng và các bài tập vận dụng trong thì này nhé.

Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)
Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

1. Định nghĩa thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (Past Perfect Continuous Tense)

Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn (Past perfect continuous tense) dùng để diễn tả một hành động, sự việc đã đang xảy ra trong quá khứ và kết thúc trước một hành động cũng xảy ra trong quá khứ.

2. Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Trong câu có một số từ sau thì ta sử dụng thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn:

  • Until then: Cho đến lúc đó
  • By the time: Đến lúc
  • Prior to that time: Thời điểm trước đó
  • Before, after: Trước, sau

3. Công thức thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Công thức thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Công thức Past Perfect Continuous Tense

3.1. Thể khẳng định

  • Cấu trúc: S + had + been + V-ing +…
  • Trong đó: S (subject): Chủ ngữ
  • had: trợ động từ
  • been: phân từ hai của động từ “to be”
  • V-ing: động từ thêm “-ing”f

3.2. Thể phủ định

  • Cấu trúc: S + had + not + been + V-ing
  • Lưu ý: had not = hadn’t

3.3. Thể nghi vấn

Câu hỏi Yes/No question

  • Cấu trúc: Had + S + been + V-ing +… ?
  • Trả lời: Yes, S + had.
  • No, S + hadn’t.

Câu hỏi WH- question

  • Cấu trúc: WH-word + had + S + been + V-ing +…?
  • Trả lời: S + had + been + V-ing…

4. Cách dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Cách dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

4.1. Diễn tả 1 hành động xảy ra kéo dài liên tục trước 1 hành động khác trong quá khứ

  • We had been sleeping for 12 hours when he woke us up.
  • It had been raining and the road was covered in water.

4.2. Diễn tả 1 hành động xảy ra kéo dài liên tục trước một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ

  • They had been waiting at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally arrived.
  • We had been looking for her ring for two hours and then we found it in the bathroom.

4.3. Dùng để nhấn mạnh hành động kết quả để lại trong quá khứ

  • I was really tired because I had been studying.
  • Frank Sinatra caught the flu because he had been singing in the rain too long

5. Phân biệt thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn và thì quá khứ hoàn thành

5.1. Về công thức

The past perfect

  • S + had + V-3
  • S + hadn’t + V-3
  • Had + S + V-3 ?
  • How /Wh-question + had + S + V-3?

The past perfect continuous

  • S + had been + V-ing
  • S + hadn’t been + V-ing
  • Had + S + been + V-ing ?
  • How /Wh-question + had + S + been + V-ing?

5.2. Về cách dùng

The past perfect

  • Diễn đạt một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ.
  • Dùng để mô tả hành động trước một thời gian xác định trong quá khứ.
  • Dùng trong câu điều kiện loại 3 và mệnh đề wish trái với quá khứ.
  • Trong câu có các từ: When, by the time, until, before, after

The past perfect continuous

  • Diễn đạt một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ (nhấn mạnh tính tiếp diễn).
  • Diễn đạt một hành động kéo dài liên tục đến một hành động khác trong quá khứ.
  • Trong câu có các từ: since, for, how long…

6. Một số bài tập và đáp án thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Bài tập và đáp án
Bài tập luyện tập có đáp án

6.1. Bài tập 1

  1. When we got home, Lisa was sitting in front of the TC. She had just turned it off. (she/watch/a film). ……………………………………………………………………
  2. Nam woke up in the middle of the night. He was frightened and didn’t know where she was. (he/dream)……………………………………………………………………..
  3. She was disappointed when she had to cancel her holiday. (she/look/forward to it)………………………………………………………………………
  4. Two friends came into the house. They had tennis and they were both very tired. (they/play/tennis)……………………………………………………………………..
  5. We were very tired when we arrived home. (we/work/hard all day)………………………………………………………………………

6.2. Bài tập 2

  1. When she arrived, everybody was sitting around the table with their mouths full. They _____ (eat).
  2. It was very noisy next door. My neighbors __________ (have) a party.
  3. When he arrived, everybody was sitting around the table and talking. Their mouths were empty, but their stomachs were full. They ___________ (eat).
  4. Sam was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She __________ (run)
  5. Jame and Lily went for a walk. Lily had difficulty keeping up with him because Jame ________ (walk) so fast.
  6. Tom was on his hands and knees on the floor. He _________ (look) for his contact lens.
  7. When I arrived, Peter __________ (wait) for me. He was annoyed with me because I was late and he __________ (wait) for a long time.

6.3. Đáp án

Bài tập 1:

  1. She had been watching a film.
  2. He had been dreaming.
  3. She had been looking forward to it.
  4. They had been playing tennis.
  5. We had been working hard all day.

Bài tập 2:

  1. were eating.
  2. were having.
  3. had been eating.
  4. had been running.
  5. was walking.
  6. was looking.
  7. was waiting/had been waiting.

Trên đây là tất cả công thức và ví dụ vận dụng về thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễnNgoại Ngữ Tinh Tú (Ngoaingutinhtu.com) tổng hợp. Hy vọng sẽ giúp bạn trang bị thêm kiến thức để vận dụng vào bài tập hay tình huống giao tiếp hằng ngày.

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